The CAUT Almanac “documents the most current statistical information available on the status of post-secondary education in Canada,” using Stats Canada and other data. Each chapter of charts and tables is prefaced with “Highlights,” as quoted below.
- Federal government cash transfers for post-secondary education in Canada, when measured as a proportion of GDP, have declined by 50% between 1992–1993 and 2011–2012.
- In 2010, community college revenues in Canada were more than $9.2 billion, a slight increase of 0.1% from 2009.
- Community college expenditures in Canada, in 2010, totaled more than $9.3 billion, a decline of 2.2% from 2009.
- Total university revenues in Canada, in 2009, were more than $26 billion. This marked a 2.8% decrease from revenues received in 2008.
- Total university expenditures in Canada, in 2009, were more than $28 billion; an increase of 6.5% from 2008 expenditures.
- Canadian universities are relying increasingly on private income sources, primarily in the form of university tuition fees, to fund university operating revenues. Between 1979 and 2009 the proportion of university operating revenue provided by government sources has declined from 84% to 58% while the proportion funded by student tuition fees has increased from 12% to 35%.
- Total Canadian university expenditures have increased dramatically over the past 30 years and at a rate significantly higher than expenditures on academic salaries. Between 1980 and 2009, total university expenditures increased by 195%, calculated in constant dollars. Over the same time period total expenditures in real dollars on academic rank salaries at Canadian universities increased by only 86%.
- Despite the significant increase in university spending over the past 30 years, spending on academic salaries as a proportion of total university expenditures has declined steadily during this period. In 2009 spending on academic rank salaries represented only 20% of university expenditures, down from 31% in 1980.
Academic Staff: Highlights:
- Average salaries for all full-time Canadian university teachers increased by 2.8% between 2010 and 2011.
- Average salaries for Full Professors in Canada, measured in constant 2011 dollars, increased by 22.1% between 2001 and 2011, an average real growth of 2.2% per year.
- In 2011, female academic staff continued to earn less than their male counterparts. Female Full Professors earned an average of 95.1% of male Full Professors, female Associate Professors 97.2% and female Assistant Professors 98.0%.
- As mandatory retirement laws have been rescinded in a number of provinces in recent years, the proportion of fulltime university teachers in Canada, employed as teachers beyond the common retirement age of 65, more than quadrupled between 2001 and 2011, to 5.1% (8.3% of males and 3.8% of females).
- Over the same period there was a steady increase in the proportion of university teachers in the younger age cohorts (under 40 years) from 17.3% in 2001 to a peak of 21.3% in 2009. The proportion of younger age university teachers declined to 19.3% in 2011 (18.0% males and 21.6% females).
- In 2011, 2,034 new full-time university teachers were appointed in Canada. Of these, 44.2% were female.
- Female university teachers have made significant progress in attaining tenured and tenure track appointments over the past two decades. The proportion of full-time female university teachers holding tenured university positions more than doubled between 1991 and 2011, to 32.9%. Furthermore, in 2011, 43.3% of full-time female university teachers were in tenure track positions, up from 30.3% in 1989.
- 36.6% of all full-time university teachers in 2011 were female, up from 28.7% in 2001. However, in 2011, only 22.8% of Full Professors teaching in Canadian universities were female, an increase from 15.1% in 2001.
- In 2010, 198,948 Bachelor’s and other undergraduate degrees, 44,919 Master’s, and 5,736 Doctorates were awarded in Canada. 193,989 community college certificates and diplomas were awarded.
- The participation rate of 21-year-olds in university education grew from 12% in 1972–1973 to 31% in 2009–2010. The participation rate for youth aged 18-24 in university programs was 24% in 2009–2010, up from 17% in 1992–1993.
- In 2009–2010, 44% of undergraduates attended university in Ontario and 21% attended universities in Québec. 40% of all community college students in Canada were at Ontario colleges and 39% attended CEGEPs in Quebec.
- Full-time university enrolment grew from 592,323 in 1999–2000 to 882,621 in 2009–2010, an increase of 49% over the decade. Part-time enrolment grew more modestly (26%) during the same period.
- In 2009–2010, two-thirds (65%) of all undergraduate enrolment was in the social sciences and humanities. Enrolments in the natural sciences and engineering comprised about one quarter (23%).
- Women accounted for a majority of FTE students enrolled at the Bachelor’s and other undergraduate degree (57%) and Master’s (54%) program levels and 47% at the Ph.D. levels in 2009–2010. Women also accounted for a majority of FTE community college enrolments (54%) in 2009–2010.
- In 2009-2010, international students made up 6% of Bachelor’s and other undergraduate degree program FTE enrolment, and 4% of Master’s and 7% of Ph.D. programs.
- Among first-year undergraduate students surveyed in 2010, about 5% self-identified as aboriginal, 24% self-identified as a member of a visible minority group, and 9% of students self-identified as disabled.
- The cost of undergraduate tuition has grown markedly over the past twenty years, from an average of $1,706 in 1991–1992 to $5,366 in 2011–2012, an increase of over 200%. Over the same period, the cost of living increased by only 41%. Tuition costs grew the fastest in Ontario (+265% in 2011–2012) and the slowest at Memorial University in Newfoundland (+72%). At $6,640, Ontario also has the highest average tuition in the country. In Québec, tuition grew almost as slowly (+92%) as in Newfoundland over 1991–1992 to 2011–2012, and the average tuition ($2,519 in 2011–2012) remains the lowest in the country.
- In 2006, youth aged 18-24 with parents earning more than $100,000 in pre-tax income were almost twice as likely (49%) to have been enrolled in university than those whose parents were earning less than $25,000 (28%).
- Over half (54%) of full-time students aged 20-29 participated in the labour market in 2011, whether working part-time or full-time, or looking for work.
- Over 1990–1991 to 2009–2010, the number of full-time CSL [Canada Student Loan] recipients grew by 142% in Ontario and by 82% in British Columbia, while declining by 43% in Newfoundland and by 37% in Saskatchewan.
- In 2009–2010, the average Canada Student Loan for full-time university students was $5,720, $5,101 for full-time college students and $7,230 for full-time students at private institutions.
Universities and Colleges: Highlights:
- At the end of 2010, Canadian universities and colleges had accumulated more than $10.9 billion in endowment funds, calculated at market value; an increase of 7.4% over 2009.
- Student-teacher ratios at Canadian universities increased in 2009–2010 to 24.9. This figure should be treated with caution, however, as much of the undergraduate teaching at Canadian universities is performed by contract academic staff who are not included in the annual survey of full-time university academic staff.
- In 2010, the average salary and benefit packages paid to university presidents in Canada decreased by 1.5% from 2009 for reporting institutions. The highest paid Canadian university president now receives almost $600,000 in salary and benefits.
- In 2010, the average salary and benefit packages paid to college presidents in Canada increased by 4.3% over 2009 for reporting institutions. While salaries paid to college presidents are still lower on average than those paid to university presidents, the salary gap between them is narrowing.
- Federal government funding for university based research declined from the early 1990s to 1998. Between 1999 and 2004, federal funding more than doubled but between 2005 and 2010 federal funding increased by a more modest 13.1%.
- SSHRC continues to be seriously under-funded when compared to the other Granting Councils, NSERC and CIHR. While 56% of full-time Canadian university teachers teach in the Humanities, Education and Social Science disciplines, SSHRC only received 13.3% of federal granting council funds in 2008–2009.
- As of October 2011, the Canada Foundation for Innovation had granted 7,372 awards for research for a total value of more than $4.4 billion.
- The number of female university teachers awarded a Canada Research Chair has increased slowly over the past decade. In 2012, 16.8% of Tier 1 chairs are now held by women, up 5.5% since 2002. 32.4% of Tier 2 chairs are held by women compared to 20.4% in 2002.
- 58.0% of CFI awards have been given for research in the fields of Natural Sciences and Engineering, followed by 32.1% in Health Sciences. Research in the fields of Arts and Literature, Human and Social Sciences and Multidisciplinary fields have received less than 10% of awards granted to date.
- In 2010, the top 50 Canadian universities, ranked by their sponsored research income, received more than $6.4 billion in income. This was a 21.5% drop in income from the $8.2 billion raised in 2009.
- 66.5% of Sponsored Research revenues were provided by Canadian government sources in 2008–2009. In contrast, private funding sources in the form of business donations, grants and contracts comprised 12.6% of the total.
- In 2008–2009 Canadian universities received more than $6.2 billion in Sponsored Research revenue, an increase of 2.8% from 2007–2008.
- Research and Development in Canada is increasingly conducted in universities and colleges. In 2009, 34.9% of all R&D expenditures in Canada were by Canadian postsecondary education institutions, up from 26.8% in 1995. R&D expenditures in the Business Enterprise sector dropped from 58.1% to 54.1% over the same time period, while the government sector experienced a small decline in R&D expenditures.
- Canadian research libraries spent more than $676 million in 2009–2010, a slight increase of 1.5% from 2008–2009. In 2009–2010, 52.4% of total expenditures were devoted to staff salaries and benefits.
- Total salary expenditures on professional staff increased by 6.9% between 2008–2009 and 2009–2010, while salaries paid to support and casual staff increased by 1.7% over the same period.
- Total expenditures on library staff benefits increased by 4.5% between 2008–2009 and 2009–2010.
- In 2009–2010, monograph collections at research libraries in Canada expanded by a marginal 2.0%, while collections of serials increased by 9.8%.
- Canadian research libraries spent more than $271 million on library materials (monographs and serials) in 2009–2010, a marginal increase of 0.2% from 2008–2009.
- Between 2002–2003 and 2009– 2010, all Canadian research libraries have significantly improved their ranking based on the expenditure-based ranking system of the American Research Libraries. Much of the improved ranking, however, may be explained by the dramatic increase in the exchange rate of the Canadian dollar.
Canada + Provinces: Highlights:
- In January 2012, almost two thirds of Canadians aged 25 and older reported having at least some post-secondary education. 34.1% indicated that they had received a certifcate or diploma, while 16.5% reported a Baccalaureate and 7.9% reported a graduate degree.
- The unemployment rate in January 2012 was 6.8% for those with a postsecondary certifcate or diploma, 4.3% for those with an undergraduate degree and 4.7% for those with a graduate degree. For the overall population, the rate was 6.8%.
- National GDP growth in Canada was 2.6% in 2011. With the exception of Newfoundland and Labrador, which grew by 2.8%, provincial GDP growth was lowest in the Atlantic region, at 0.1% in New Brunswick, 0.3% in Nova Scotia and 1.1% in Prince Edward Island. The highest growth rates were in Saskatchewan (4.8%) and Alberta (5.2%), while the heartland of Quebec and Ontario also had significantly lower than average growth, at 1.7% and 2.0% respectively. Per capita income in Canada was $29,975 in 2009, varying from a low of $25,514 in Prince Edward Island to a high of $35,987 in Alberta.
- Median after-tax family income in 2009 was $63,800. The top 20% of income-earning families (households with incomes of $97,601 or greater) received 40% of all total after-tax family income. The bottom 20% (households with incomes of $37,100 or less) received just over 7%.
- Between 1980–2005, the top 20% of regular income earners experienced an increase in median earnings of 16.4% (in constant dollars). Median earnings of the bottom 20% dropped by 20.6% over the same period.
- Between 1999–2005, the poorest Canadians became poorer while the wealthiest became richer. The average debt levels of the poorest 20% of Canadian families grew by 70.3%, while the wealth and assets of the richest 20% grew 43.1%, after adjusting for inflation.
- The primary source for international education comparisons is the OECD’s annual publication Education at a Glance. Please note that for many of the indicators reported current data for Canada are unavailable. In these instances we have chosen to report for Canada the most current available data.
- Canada ranks third of all OECD countries in the proportion of female university and college teachers.
- Canada’s universities and colleges have aggressively recruited full fee-paying international students in recent years. In 2007, 5.5% of all international students in the world chose to pursue their post-secondary education in Canada, a small increase from the 4.4% of international students registered in 2006. In spite of this increase, Canada remained the sixth most popular destination behind the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Australia.
- Canada’s population is very well educated when compared to citizens of other OECD countries. In fact, at 49.5% Canada leads all OECD countries by a significant margin in the proportion of its population that has successfully attained a college or university education.
- Canada’s reported student-teacher ratio of 16.2 is slightly higher than the OECD average of 14.9 in 2009. This ratio needs to be treated with caution, however, as it has not been updated since 2001.
- Private funding sources for post-secondary education have increased in almost all OECD countries between 2000 and 2008.
- In 2008, only fve OECD countries reported a lower percentage of public funding for post-secondary education than Canada. In 2007 just 58.7% of funding for post-secondary education in Canada came from public sources, down from 61.0% in 2000, and considerably below the OECD average of 68.9% in 2008. Canada has the sixth highest share of private funding (including tuition fees) of post-secondary education amongst OECD countries.
- When higher education R&D expenditures are measured as a percentage of GDP, the results for Canada indicate a much higher level of R&D investment at the post-secondary level than other OECD countries. In 2009, Canadian higher education R&D expenditures were 0.72% of GDP, in contrast to the OECD average of 0.44%. The corresponding figure for the United States was 0.39%.